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Preface
Introduction

01. Tools
02. Saws
03. Planes
04. Boring Tools
05. Chisels + Chiseling
06. Form Work
07. Scraping + Sandpapering
08. Type Forms
09. Cabinet Work
10. Wood
11. Lumbering + Milling
12. Common Woods
13. Wood Finishing

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Common Woods

128. Classification.—According to botanical class­ification, woods belong to the Flowering Plants (Phan-erogamia). Classified further we have:

(1)Naked seeds (gymnosperms)

  1. Palm ferns, etc. (cycadaceae)
  2. Joint firs (gnetaceae)
  3. Pines, firs, etc. (conifers)

(2)Fruits (angiosperms)

  1. One-seed-leaf(monocotyledons)
    (Bamboos, palms, grasses, etc.)
  2. Two-seed-leaf (dicotyledon)
  3. a.Herbs.

b.Broad-leafed trees.

(Oak, ash, elm, etc.)

Conifers and broad-leaved trees are alike in that they add a new layer of wood each year which covers the old wood of root, trunk and branch. They are known as exogens—outward growers.

In woods such as the palms, bamboos, and yuccas, growth is made from within.

The new wood strands mingle with the old and cause the cross sections to appear dotted, Fig. 218. Trees of this class—endogens—after some years of growth form harder wood near the surface with younger and softer growth toward the center—quite the reverse of the exogens. There are no annual rings. Growth takes place main­ly at the top.

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Other classifications, such as decidu­ous, "hard woods," "evergreens," "soft woods," are in common use but are not very accurate.

Deciduous trees are the broad-leaved trees and are so called because they lose their leaves in the fall. Broad-leaved trees are also called hard woods.

Conifers are called evergreens because their needle-shaped leaves remain green on the tree the year around. They are also known as soft woods.

Most of our timber is furnished by (1) the needle-leaved conifers and (2) the broad-leaved trees.

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129. Cedar. -Fig. 219. Light, soft, stiff, not strong, of fine texture; sap and heartwood distinct, the former lighter, the latter a dull grayish brown, or red. The wood seasons rapidly,  shrinks and checks but little, and is very durable. Used like soft pine, but owing to its great durability preferred for shingles, etc. Small sizes used for posts, ties, etc. (Since almost all kinds of wood are used for fuel and charcoal, and in the construction of fences, barns, etc., the enumeration of these uses has been omitted in this list.) Cedars usually oc The descriptive matter in small type is quoted, by permission, from a report of the Division of Forestry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. cur scattered, but they form, in certain localities, forests of con­siderable extent.

130. Cypress.—Fig. 220. Cypress wood in appearance, quality, and uses is similar to white cedar. "Black cypress" and "white cypress" are heavy and light forms of the same species. The cypress is a large deciduous tree occupying much of the swamp and overflow land along the coast and rivers of the Southern States.

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wood working projects

131. Pine.—Fig. 221. Very variable, very light and soft in "soft" pine, such as white pine; of medium weight to heavy and quite hard in "hard" pine, of which longleaf or Georgia pine is the extreme form. Usually it is stiff, quite strong, of even text­ure, and more or less resinous. The sapwood is yellowish white; the heartwood, orange brown. Pine shrinks moderately, seasons rapidly and without much injury; it works easily; is never too hard to nail (unlike oak or hickory); it is mostly quite durable, and if well seasoned is not subject to the attacks of boring in­sects. The heavier the wood, the darker, stronger and harder it is, and the more it shrinks and checks. Pine is used more exten­sively than any other kind of wood. It is the principal wood in common carpentry, as well as in all heavy construction, bridges, trestles, etc. It is used also in almost every other wood industry, for spars, masts, planks, and timbers in ship building, in car and wagon construction, in cooperage, for crates and boxes, in fur­niture work, for toys and patterns, railway ties, water pipes, ex­celsior, etc. Pines are usually large trees with few branches, the straight, cylindrical, useful stem forming by far the greatest part of the tree.

132. Spruce—Pig. 222. Resembles soft pine, is light, very soft, stiff, moderately strong, less resinous than pine; has no distinct heartwood, and is of whitish color. Used like soft pine, but also employed as resonance wood and preferred for paper pulp. Spruces, like pines, form extensive forests; they are more frugal, thrive on thinner soils, and bear more shade, but usually require a more humid climate. "Black" and "white" spruce, as applied by lumbermen, usually refer to narrow and wide ringed forms of black spruce.

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wood working projects

133. Ash.—Fig. 223. Wood heavy, hard, strong, stiff, quite tough, not durable in contact with soil, straight grained, rough on the split surface and coarse in texture. The wood shrinks moderately, seasons with little injury, stands well and takes a good polish. In carpentry ash is used for finishing lumber, stairways, panels, etc.; it is used in shipbuilding, in the construction of cars, wagons, carriages, etc., in the manufacture of farm implements, machinery, and especially of furniture of all kinds, and also for harness work; for barrels, baskets, oars, tool handles, hoops, clothespins, and toys'. The trees of the several species of ash are rapid growers, of small to medium height with stout trunks; they form no forests, but occur scattered in almost all broad-leaved forests.

134. Basswood.—Fig. 224. (Lime tree, American linden, linbee tree): Wood light, soft, stiff but not strong, of fine texture, and white to light brown color. The wood shrinks considerably in drying, works and stands well; it is used in carpen­try, in the manufacture of furniture and woodenware, both turned and carved, in cooperage, for toys, also for paneling of car and carriage bod­ies. Medium to large sized trees, com­mon in all Northern broad-leaved for­ests; found throughout the eastern United States.

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135.Birch.—-Fig. 225. Wood heavy, hard, strong, of fine texture; sapwood whitish, heartwood in shades of brown with red and yellow; very handsome, with satiny luster, equaling cherry. The wood shrinks considerably in drying, works and stands well and takes a good polish, but is not durable if exposed. Birch is used for finishing lumber in building, in the manufac­ture of furniture, in woodturnery for spools, boxes, wooden shoes, etc., for shoe lasts and pegs, for wagon hubs, ox yokes, etc., also in wood-carving. The birches are medium sized trees, form extensive forests northward and occur scattered in all broad-leaved forests of the eastern United States.

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136. Butternut.—Fig. 226. (White Walnut.) Wood very similar to black walnut, but light, quite soft, not strong and of light brown color. Used chiefly for finishing lumber, cabinet work and cooperage. Medium sized tree, largest and most com­mon in the Ohio basin; Maine to Minnesota and southward to Georgia and Alabama.

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137. Cherry.—Fig. 227. Wood heavy, hard, strong, of fine texture; sapwood yellowish white, heartwood reddish to brown. The wood shrinks considerably in drying, works and stands well, takes a good polish, and is much esteemed for its beauty. Cher­ry is used chiefly as a decorative finishing lumber for buildings, cars and boats, also for furniture and for turnery. It is becom­ing too costly for many purposes for which it is naturally suited. The lumbar-furnishing cherry of this country, the wild black cherry, is a small to medium sized tree, scattered through many of the broad-leaved woods of the western slope of the Alleghan-ies, but found from Michigan to Florida and west to Texas.

138. Chestnut.—Fig. 228. Wood light, moderately soft, stiff, not strong, of coarse texture; the sapwood light, the heart-wood darker brown. It shrinks and checks considerably in dry­ing, works easily, stands well, and is very durable. Used in cabinet work, cooperage, for railway ties, telegraph poles, and locally in heavy construc­tion. Medium sized tree very common in the Alleghanies, oc­curs from Maine to Michigan

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wood working projects

139. Elm.—Fig. 229. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very tough;  moderately durable in contact with the soil; commonly cross-grain­ ed, difficult to split and shape, warps and checks considerably in drying, but stands well if properly handled. The broad sapwood whitish, heart brown, both shades of gray and red; on split surface rough, texture coarse to fine, capable of high polish. Elm is used in the construction of cars, wag­ons, etc., in boat and ship building, for agricultural implements and machinery; in rough cooperage, saddlery, and harness work, but particularly in the manufacture of all kinds of furniture, where the beautiful figures, especially of the tangential or bas­tard section, are just beginning to be duly appreciated. The elms are medium to large sized trees, of fairly rapid growth, with stout trunk, form no forests of pure growth, but are found scattered in all the broad-leaved woods of our country.

140. Gum.—This general term refers to two kinds of wood, usually distinguished as sweet or red gum, and sour, black, or tupelo gum, the former being a relative of the witch-hazel, the latter belonging to the dogwood family.

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Sweet Gum. (red gum, liquidambar); Wood rather heavy, rather soft, quite stiff and strong, tough, com­ monly cross-grained, of fine texture; the broad sap wood whitish, the heartwood red­ dish brown; the wood warps and shrinks considerably, but does not check badly,stands well when fully sea­ soned, and takes good polish. Sweet gum is used in carpentry, in the manufacture of furniture, for cut veneer, for wooden plates, plaques, baskets, etc., also for wagon hubs, hat blocks, etc. A large sized tree, very abundant, often the principal tree in the swampy par;s of the bottoms of the Lower Mississippi Valley; occurs from New York to Texas and from Indiana to Florida.

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141. Hickory—Fig 231. Wood very heavy, hard and strong, proverbially tough, of rather coarse texture, smooth and of straight grain. The board sap wood white, the heart reddish nut brown. It dries slowly, shrinks and checks considerably, is not durable in the ground, or if exposed, and, especially the sapwood, is always subject tothe inroads of boring insects. Hickory excels as carriage and wagon stock, but is also extensively used in the manufacture of implements and machinery, for tool handles, timber pins, for harness work and cooperage. The hickories are tall trees with slender stems, never form forests, occasionally small groves, but usually occur scattered among other broad-leaved trees in suit­able localities.

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142. Maple.—Fig. 232. Wood heavy, hard, strong, stiff, and tough, of fine texture, frequently wavy grain­ed, thus giving rise to "curly" and "blister" figures; not durable in the ground or other­wise exposed. Maple is creamy white, with shades of light brown in the heart; shrinks moderately, seasons, works and stands well, wears smoothly and takes fine polish. The wood is used for ceil­ing, flooring, paneling, stairway and other finishing lumber in house, ship and car con­struction; it is used for the keels of boats and ships, in the man­ufacture of implements and machinery, but especially for furni­ture, where entire chamber sets of maple rival those of oak. Maple is also used for shoe lasts and other form blocks, for shoe pegs, for piano actions, school apparatus, for wood type in show bill printing, tool handles, wood carving, turnery and scroll work. The maples are medium sized trees, of fairly rapid growth; sometimes form forests and frequently constitute a large pro­portion of the arborescent growth.

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143. Oak.—Fig. 233. Wood very variable, usually very heavy and hard, very strong and tough, porous, and of coarse texture; the sapwood whitish, the heart "oak" brown to reddish brown. It shrinks and checks bad­ly, giving trouble in season­ing, but stands well, is dur­able and little subject to at­tacks of insects. Oak is used for many purposes; in shipbuilding, for heavy con­struction, in common car­pentry, in furniture, car and wagon work, cooperage, turnery, and even in wood-carving; also in the manufacture of all kinds of farm implements, wooden mill machinery, for piles and wharves, railway ties, etc. The oaks are medium to large sized trees, form­ing the predominant part of a large portion of our broad-leaved forests, so that these are generally "oak forests" though they al­ways contain a considerable proportion of other kinds of trees. Three well marked kinds, white, red, and live oak are distin­guished and kept separate in the market. Of the two principal kinds, white oak is the stronger, tougher, less porous, and more durable. Red oak is usually of coarser texture, more porous, often brittle, less durable, and even more troublesome in season­ing than white oak. In carpentry and furniture work, red oak brings about the same price at present as white oak. The red oaks everywhere accompany the white oaks, and like the latter, are usually represented by several species in any given locality. Live oak, once largely employed in shipbuilding, possesses all the good qualities (except that of size) of the white oak, even to a greater degree. It is one of the heaviest, hardest and most dur­able building timbers of this country; in structure it resembles the red oak but is much less porous.

144. Sycamore.—Fig. 234 (button wood, button-ball tree, water beech): Wood moderately heavy, quite hard, stiff, strong, tough, usually cross-grained, of coarse texture, and white to light brown color; the wood is hard to split and work, shrinks moderately, warps and checks considerably but stands well. It is used ex­tensively for drawers, backs, bottoms, etc., in cabinetwork, for tobacco boxes, in cooperage, and also for finishing lumber, where it has too long been underrated. A large tree, of rapid growth, common and largest in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, at home in nearly all parts of the eastern United States.

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wood working projects

145. Tulip Wood.—Fig. 235. Tulip tree, (yellow poplar, white wood): Wood quite variable in weight, usually light, soft, stiff but not strong, of fine texture, and yellowish color; the wood shrinks considerably, but seasons without much injury; works and stands remarkably well. Used for siding, for paneling, and finishing lumber in house, car and shipbuilding, for sideboards and panels of wagons and carriages; also in the manufacture of furniture, implements and machinery, for pump logs, and almost every kind of common woodenware, boxes, shelving, drawers, etc. An ideal wood for the carver and toy man. A large tree, does not form forests, but is quite common, especially in the Ohio basin; occurs from New England to Missouri and south­ward to Florida.

146. Walnut.—Fig. 236. Black walnut. Wood heavy, hard strong, of coarse texture; the narrow sapwood whitish, the heartwood chocolate brown. The wood shrinks moderately in drying, works and stands well, takes a good polish, is quite handsome, and has been for a long time the favorite cabinet wood in this country. Walnut formerly used even for fencing, has become too costly for ordinary uses, and is to-day employed largely as a veneer, for inside finish and cabinet work, also for turnery, for gunstocks, etc. Black walnut is a large tree, with stout trunk, of rapid growth, and was formerly quite abundant throughout the Alleghany region, occurring from New England to Texas, and from Michigan to Florida.

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