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Preface
Introduction

01. Tools
02. Saws
03. Planes
04. Boring Tools
05. Chisels + Chiseling
06. Form Work
07. Scraping + Sandpapering
08. Type Forms
09. Cabinet Work
10. Wood
11. Lumbering + Milling
12. Common Woods
13. Wood Finishing

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Elementary Cabinet Work

101. Combination Plane.—The most elementary of cabinet work necessitates considerable groove cutting, rabbeting, etc. Rabbets and grooves can be formed by means of the chisel, the sides first being gaged. A better way, by far, is to plane them. In earlier practice, joiners were obliged to have a great variety of special planes— one for each kind of work, and frequently different planes for different sizes of the same kind of work. There were rabbeting, dado, plow, filletster, beading, matching planes, etc.. etc.

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Fig. 173 illustrates a modern combination plane which, by an exchange of cutters, can be made to do the work of a (1) beader, center beader, (2) rabbet and filletster, (3) dado, (4) plow, (5) matching plane, and (6) slitting plane, different sized cutters for each kind of work per­mitting of a great variety of uses. By means of a guide or fence, the plane can be set to cut to a required distance from the edge of the board. A stop or depth gage can be set so as to keep the plane from cutting any deeper than is desired. When cutting across the grain, as in cutting dadoes, adjustable cutting spurs precede and score or cut the fibers of the wood on either side of the cutter.

102. Drawer Construction.—The front of a drawer is usually made of thicker stock than the other parts. Fig. 174. For example, if the front were to be made of three-quarter inch stock the sides, back and bottom would prob ably be made of three-eighths inch material.

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Drawer fronts are always made of the same material as the rest of the cabinet or desk while the sides, back and bottom are usually made of some soft wood such as yellow poplar.

Fig. 175A illustrates a very common method of fasten­ing the drawer sides to the front. This form is used mainly upon cheap or rough construction. It is com­monly known as a rabbeted joint. The half-blind dove­tail, Fig. 175B, is a better fastening, by far, and is used almost exclusively on fine drawer construction.

103. Directions for Rabbeted Corner.—The rabbeted joint, Fig. 175A, sometimes called a rebate or ledge joint, is made as follows: (1) Line across the face side of the drawer front at a distance from the end equal to the thickness of the drawer sides; also, across the edges to the approximate depth of rabbet. (2) Set the gage and gage on ends and edges as far as the lines just placed, for the depth of rabbet. (3) Cut the sides of rabbet, paring across the grain as in cutting the dado. Fasten by nail­ing thru the drawer sides into the front, not thru the front into the sides.

104. Directions for Dovetail Corner.—The front of the drawer should be laid out and cut first. (1) Gage on the end the distance the drawer side is to lap over the front. (2) Without changing the setting of the gage hold the head of the gage against the end of the drawer side and gage on both broad surfaces. Ordinarily, one should not gage across the grain of the wood nor should the head of the gage be held against other than a face. A little thought will show why exception has been made in this case. (3) Square a line across the face side—the inside surface—of the drawer front at a distance from the end equal to the thickness of the drawer side.

This line gives the depth of mortise for the tails. (4) The groove for the drawer bottom having been cut, or its posi­tion marked on the end of the front, lay out on the end the half tenons at both edges so that the groove shall come wholly within a tail mortise. The amount of flare at which to set the bevel is given in Chapter VlII, Section 100. (5) Determine the number of tenons wanted and divide the space between the flares just drawn into the required number of equal parts and draw center lines for the tenons, Fig. 176. (6) With the bevel lay off to either side of these center lines the sides of the tenons. (7) Carry these lines down the face side to meet the line previously drawn to indicate mortise depth. (8) Saw ex­actly to the knife lines, cutting, Fig. 177, the kerfs out of the mortises, not the tenons. (9) Chisel out the mortises, Fig. 178.

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wood working projects

The corresponding 'mortises and tails may now be laid out on the drawer side and worked. (10) By super­position, Fig. 179, mark out the shape of the mortises to be cut in the sides. (11) Saw and chisel these mortises, Fig. 172.

wood working projects


wood working projects

105. Directions for Drawer.—(1) Square the differ­ent members to size. (2) Groove the front and sides of the drawer to receive the drawer bottom. These grooves should be made somewhat narrower than the bottom is thick to insure a good fit. The under side of the bottom, later, may be gaged and beveled on the two ends and the front edge, Fig. 180. (3) Lay out and cut in the drawer sides the dadoes into which the ends of the back are to be fitted, Fig. 181. (4) Lay out and cut the joints on the front of the drawer. (5) Get the bottom ready; that is, plane the bevels on the under side as suggested in (2), above. (6) Assemble the members dry to see that all fit properly. (7) Take apart; glue the joints by which the sides are fastened to the front and the joints by which the back is fastened to the sides.

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Glue the bottom to the front of the drawer but not to the sides or back. Sometimes on large or rough work nails are used in­stead of glue to fasten the members together. In this case the front, sides and back are put together, the back being kept just above the grooves in the sides. The bot­tom is then slipped in place under the back. It is fastened to the front of the drawer only. Especial care should be taken in squaring the bottom for the squareness of the drawer is dependent upon this.

106. Paneling.—Often it is desired to fill in a rather wide space with wood. To offset the effects of shrinkage, winding and warpage, a panel rather than a single solid piece is used. By increasing the number of panels a space of any size may be filled.

In the making of doors, frames for panels, etc., enough extra stock must be added to the stiles and rails to permit their being trimmed when fitting them in place. One-quarter inch to each member is usual.

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107. Cutting Grooves.—Grooves for panels are best cut by means of the panel plow or combination plane. It is not neces­sary to gage for the sides of the groove; the adjustments of the plane are such as to give the proper depth and location, when once set, and a cutter of the width equal to that of the desired groove inserted. The fence of the plane must be held against one or the other of the faces. Fig. 173.

108.Haunched Mortise - and - Tenon.—A groove must be plowed the full length of a piece to work it to advantage. Where a mortise-and-tenon joint is to be made in which the grooved surface is to become a part, the tenon must be so cut as to allow its filling the groove.

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The mortise should be cut before the groove is plowed. The tenon, after be­ing worked the full width, is gaged from the face edge to a width equal to the length of the mortise and worked to that size.

Especial care must be taken in gluing up the frame that no glue shall get into the grooves or on the edges of the panel.

109. Rabbeting.—Fig. 184 shows a corner of a frame rabbeted to receive a glass. Rabbets are best worked with either a rabbet plane or the combination plane. In rabbeting across the grain the spur must be set parallel with the edges of the cutter.

wood working projects


wood working projects

Since the parts of the frame are rabbeted the full length for convenience, a special joint is necessary at the corners. The mor­tises are cut be­fore the rabbets are worked. The tenons are laid out so that the shoulder on one side shall extend as far beyond the shoulder on the opposite side as the rabbet is deep.

wood working projects

wood working projects

Where rabbeting must be worked with a chisel alone, Fig. 186 illustrates the manner of loosening up the wood preparatory to removing it, when the rabbet extends along the grain of the wood.

To place glass panels in rab­bets, first place a slight cushion of putty in the rabbet the glass may rest against it. Fig. 186. A light cushion between the glass and the fillet will serve to keep the glass from breaking and will keep it from rattling. Fig. 187.

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wood working projects

110. Fitting a Door.—A door is a frame with a panel or a combination of panels. The names of the parts of a door and their relative positions are indicated in Fig. 188. (1) Mark with a try-square and saw off the lugs, the parts of the stiles which project beyond the rails. (2) Plane an edge of the door until it fits a side of the frame against which it is to be hung. If the frame is straight, this edge may be planed straight. It is not wise to take for granted the squareness or straightness of a frame. A test or series of tests may first be made with square and straight-edge. A mechanic, -however, usually planes an edge until it fits the frame.testing by holding the door against the frame as near to its position as its size will allow. (3) Plane the bottom or top edge of the door until it fits the frame properly when the first planed edge is in position. (4) Measure the width of the frame at its top and bottom, Fig. 189, and transfer these dimensions to the top and bottom of the door, connecting them with a straight-edge. When ap­proaching the line, in planing, place the door against the frame often enough to see where the allowances must be made for irregularities in the frame. (5) The length of the frame may next be measured on each side and these dimensions transferred to the door. Connect them with a straight-edge and plane and fit as was directed in the third step.

A door to work well must not be fitted perfectly tight; it must have a little "play," the amount depending upon the size of the door.

The edge of the door which is to swing free is usually planed slightly lower at the back arris than at the front. An examination of the movement of an ordinary house door will show the reason for this.

111. Hinging a Door.—The hinges most commonly used in cabinet making and carpentry are the kind known as butts.

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Where the door stands in a vertical position, hinges in which the two parts are joined by a loose pin are generally used. By  removing the pins the door may be removed without taking the screws out of the hinge. Such hinges are more easily applied than those with the fixed pin. (1) Place the door in position; keep it tight against the top and the hinge side of the frame. (2) Measure from top and bottom of the door to locate the position for the top of the higher hinge and the bottom of the lower hinge. Usually, the lower hinge is placed somewhat farther from the bottom than the higher hinge is from the top. (3) With the knife or chisel mark on both door and frame at the points just located,

Fig. 190. (4) Take out the door, place the hinge as in Fig. 191, and mark along the ends with a knife. In a similar manner mark the frame.

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Make certain that the openings on door and on frame are laid off so as to cor­respond before proceeding further. (6) Set the gage for the depth the hinge is to be sunk and gage both door and frame. (7) Set another gage for width of openings and gage both door and frame, keeping the head of the gage against the front of the door. (8) Chisel out these gains on door and frame. (9) If loose-pin butts are used, sepa­rate the parts and fasten them in place. Use a brad awl to make openings for the screws. To insure the hinges' pull­ ing tight against the side of the gain make the holes just a little nearer the back side of the screw hole of the hinge. Put the door in place and insert the pins. It is a good mechanic who can make a door hang properly the first time it is put up. It is better, therefore, to insert but one or two screws in each part of a hinge until the door has been tried. (10) If the door hangs away from the frame on the hinge side, take it off; take off hinge on door or frame, or both if the crack is large; chisel the gain deeper at its front. By chiseling at the front only and feathering the cut towards the back, the gain needs to be cut but about one-half as deep as if the whole hinge were sunk. If the door should fail to shut because the hinge edge strikes the frame too soon, the screws of the offending hinge must be loosened and a piece of heavy paper or cardboard inserted along the entire edge of the gain. Fasten the screws and cut off the surplus paper with a knife. If plain butt hinges are used the operations are similar to those just described except that the whole hinge must be fastened to the door and the door held in place while fastening the hinges to the frame.

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112. Locks.—Locks which are fastened upon the sur­face of a door are called rim locks* Those which are set into mortises cut in the edge of the door are called mortise locks. Cabinet locks are placed somewhat above the middle of the door for conven ience as well as appearance. Three styles of cabinet locks such as are used on drawers and small boxes are shown in Fig. 192.

The manner of applying a cabinet lock will be suggested by the lock itself. On surface locks, (1) the lock is held against the inside of the door or drawer and the position of the keyhole is marked. (2) This hole is bored. (3) The lock is screwed in place, and (4) the escutcheon fast­ened to the outer or front surface. If a face-plate is used, the door is closed, the position marked, after which the door is opened and the plate is set. The face-place is mor­tised into the frame so that its outer surface shall be slightly lower than that of the wood. With a lock such as the box lock, Fig. 192, sufficient wood must be removed from the mortise so that the bolt may act properly before the plate is screwed fast.

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