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01. Tools
02. Saws
03. Planes
04. Boring Tools
05. Chisels + Chiseling
06. Form Work
07. Scraping + Sandpapering
08. Type Forms
09. Cabinet Work
10. Wood
11. Lumbering + Milling
12. Common Woods
13. Wood Finishing

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Preface - An experience, somewhat extended, in teaching aca­demic branches of learning as well as woodworking, has convinced the author that the most effective teaching of woodworking can be accomplished only when its content is made a subject of as diligent study as is that of the other and older branches. Such a study  necessitates the use, by the student, of a textbook.

Introduction - It is important that a beginner should become im­pressed with the necessity of keeping his tools in the best condition. Good results can be obtained only when tools are kept sharp and clean, and used only for the pur­poses for which they are made. Tools properly sharp­ened and properly used permit one to work easily as well as accurately. When it becomes necessary for the work­er to use undue strength because of the dullness of his tools, "troubles" begin to accumulate and the "pleasure of doing" is soon changed to despair.

01. Tools - 1. The Rule.—The foot is used as a unit of meas­urement in woodwork. The rule ordinarily used is called a two-foot rule because of its length. Such rules are hinged so as to fold once or twice and are usually made of boxwood or maple.

The divisions along the outer edges, the edges opposite the center hinge, are inches, halves, fourths, eighths, and on one side sixteenths also. Fig. 1.

02. Saws - 10. Saws.—Saws which are used in cutting across the grain are called crosscut; those which are used in cutting parallel to the grain are called rip-saws. Fig. 24. Upon the blade of a saw, near the handle, will be found a num ber.

This represents the number of points to the inch. Points should not be confused with teeth, for there is al­ways one more point per inch than there are teeth.

03. Planes - 18. Planes; Setting the Blade.—A standard plane of the present time is shown in Fig. 44. The bottom of this plane is of iron. Fig. 45 shows a plane with the same ad­justments in which the bottom is of wood. Planes are made in dif­ferent sizes. As certain lengths are more suit­able for certain kinds of work, they have been given distinguishing names such as jack-plane, smooth-plane, fore-plane, jointer. Fig. 44 shows the jack-plane.

04. Boring Tools - 36. Brace or Bitstock.—Fig. 73 illustrates a common form of brace. This tool is used for holding the various kinds of bits which are used in boring, reaming, etc.

The ratchet brace consists of essentially the same parts but in addition has an attach­ment which permits of the crank's acting in one direction or the other only. It is a neces­sity where the crank cannot make an entire revolution, and is very convenient for boring in hard wood or for turning large screws.

05. Chisels + Chiseling - 46. Chisels.—Chisels are usually divided into two classes, the framing chisel, which is heavy and strong, and the firmer chisel, which is lighter. The framing chisel, Fig. 87 A, is used on heavy work such as the frames of buildings. Its handle is usually fitted into a socket and the top is tipped with leather or banded with iron to pre­vent its splitting when pounded with the mallet.

06. Form Work - 58. Making a Cylinder.—The cylinder is evolved from the square prism by increasing the number of sides until a prism is formed with so many sides that its surface can be easily transformed into a cylinder by means of sand­paper.

(1) Begin by making a square prism which shall have the same dimensions for its width and thickness as is desired for the diameter of the cylinder. (2) Change this square prism to a regular octagonal or eight-sided prism by planing off the four arrises.

07. Scraping + Sandpapering - 62. Laying out Duplicate Parts.—Frequently a piece of work will require the making of two or more like parts. To lay out these parts, that is, to mark out the location of intended gains, mortises, shoulders of tenons, etc., so that all.

Shall be alike, the following method is used: (1) On the face edge of one of the pieces measure off with the rule and mark with knife the points at which the lines for the joints are to be squared across.

08. Type Forms - 76. Joinery.—This term in its broader meaning refers to the art of framing the finishing work of a house, such as doors and windows; and to the construction of per­ manent fittings, such as mantels, cupboards, linen presses, etc. Joinery as used herein refers merely to the putting together of two or more parts, called the members.

09. Cabinet Work - 101. Combination Plane.—The most elementary of cabinet work necessitates considerable groove cutting, rabbeting, etc. Rabbets and grooves can be formed by means of the chisel, the sides first being gaged. A better way, by far, is to plane them. In earlier practice, joiners were obliged to have a great variety of special planes— one for each kind of work, and frequently different planes for different sizes of the same kind of work. There were rabbeting, dado, plow, filletster, beading, matching planes, etc.. etc.

10. Wood - 113. Structure.—For convenience, tree structure is usually studied (1) in transverse or cross section, (2) radially, (3) tangentially.

A transverse section is obtained by cutting a log at right angles to its length; a radial sec­tion by cutting it along the radius; a tangential section by making a cut at right angles to a radius.

11. Lumbering + Milling - 121. Lumbering.—Lumbering is of two kinds: con­servative and ordinary. The first seeks to so treat the forest that successive crops may be produced; the second takes no account of the future—it cuts only the better parts of the trees, often destroying young and promising trees in so doing.

Lumbering in the United States is usually carried on at quite a distance from habitation.

12. Common Woods - 128. Classification.—According to botanical class­ification, woods belong to the Flowering Plants (Phan-erogamia). Classified further we have:

(1) Naked seeds (gymnosperms)

  1. Palm ferns, etc. (cycadaceae)
  2. Joint firs (gnetaceae)
  3. Pines, firs, etc. (conifers)

13. Wood Finishing - 147.Wood Finishes.—Finishes are applied to wood surfaces (1) that the wood may be preserved, (2) that the appearance may be enhanced.

Finishing materials may be classed under one or the other of the following: Filler, stain, wax, varnish, oil, paint. These materials may be used singly upon a piece of wood or they may be combined in ""various ways to pro­duce results desired.


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